The Internal Enemy: Slavery and War in Virginia, 1772-1832 (Paperback)

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Winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for History



"Impressively researched and beautifully crafted…a brilliant account of slavery in Virginia during and after the Revolution." —Mark M. Smith, Wall Street Journal


Frederick Douglass recalled that slaves living along Chesapeake Bay longingly viewed sailing ships as "freedom’s swift-winged angels." In 1813 those angels appeared in the bay as British warships coming to punish the Americans for declaring war on the empire. Over many nights, hundreds of slaves paddled out to the warships seeking protection for their families from the ravages of slavery. The runaways pressured the British admirals into becoming liberators. As guides, pilots, sailors, and marines, the former slaves used their intimate knowledge of the countryside to transform the war. They enabled the British to escalate their onshore attacks and to capture and burn Washington, D.C. Tidewater masters had long dreaded their slaves as "an internal enemy." By mobilizing that enemy, the war ignited the deepest fears of Chesapeake slaveholders. It also alienated Virginians from a national government that had neglected their defense. Instead they turned south, their interests aligning more and more with their section. In 1820 Thomas Jefferson observed of sectionalism: "Like a firebell in the night [it] awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once the knell of the union." The notes of alarm in Jefferson's comment speak of the fear aroused by the recent crisis over slavery in his home state. His vision of a cataclysm to come proved prescient. Jefferson's startling observation registered a turn in the nation’s course, a pivot from the national purpose of the founding toward the threat of disunion. Drawn from new sources, Alan Taylor's riveting narrative re-creates the events that inspired black Virginians, haunted slaveholders, and set the nation on a new and dangerous course.

About the Author


Alan Taylor, author of American Revolutions, The Internal Enemy, and other acclaimed works, has twice won the Pulitzer Prize in History. The Thomas Jefferson Professor of History at the University of Virginia, he lives in Charlottesville and Davis, California.

Praise For…


An extraordinary story [told] in vivid prose and compelling
detail. Taylor . . . has important things to say about slavery,
about war, and about America.
— James Oakes

Alan Taylor has added a remarkable chapter to American history, showing how the actions of black Virginians in the War of 1812 remade the nation’s politics in ways that profoundly influenced the racialized lead-up to the Civil War. Taylor’s meticulous research and crystal-clear prose make this essential reading for anyone seeking new insights into a troubled American past.
— Elizabeth A. Fenn, author of Pox Americana

One of the greatest works of American history I have ever
read. . . . This elegantly written and carefully researched volume
shatters a good deal of received wisdom.
— Stephen L. Carter

A comprehensive, scholarly work, made accessible by Taylor’s skill as a
storyteller.
— Kel Munger


Product Details
ISBN: 9780393349733
ISBN-10: 039334973X
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Publication Date: September 2nd, 2014
Pages: 624
Language: English